Carcinoma della prostata



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Partin AW, Kattan MW, Subong EN et al. Combination of prostate-specific antigen, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage of localized prostate cancer: A Multi-Institutional Update. JAMA 1997; 277 (18);1445-51.*





  • Rorvik J, Halvorsen OJ, Servoll E, Haukaas S. Transrectal ultrasonography to assess local extent of prostatic cancer before radical prostatectomy. BR J Urol 1993; 73:65-69.




  • Gerrit J, Jager MD, Johan L., Seversens PhD et al. Prostate Cancer Staging : Should MR imaging be used?- A decision analytic Approach. Radiology 2000; 215:445-451.*



  • Seema S, Sonnad PHD, Curtis P, Langlotz MD. Accurancy of MR Imaging for Staging Prostate Cancer: A Meta-analysis to examine the effect of Technologic Change. Acad Radiol 2001; 8: 149-157.*




  • Friedman AC, Seidmon EJ, Radecki PD, et al. Relative merits of MRI, transrectal endosonography and CT in diagnosis and staging of carcinoma of prostate. Urology 1988; 31:530-537.*





  • Levran Z, Gonzalez JA, Diokno AC, et al. Are pelvic computed tomography, bone scan and pelvic lymphadenectomy necessary in the staging of prostate cancer? Br J Urol 1995; 75(6): 778-781.*




  • Rees MA, McHugh TA, Dorr RP, et al. Assessment of the utility of bone scan , CT scan and lymph node dissection in staging of patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. J Urol 1995; 53: 352A.




  • Flanigan RC, McKay TC, Olson M, et al. Limited efficacy of preoperative computed tomographic scanning for the evaluation of lymph node metastasis in patients before radical prostatectomy. Urology 1996; 48:428-432.*




  • Rana A, Karamanis K, Lucal Mg, Chisholm GD. Identification of metastatic disease by T category, Gleason score and serum PSA level in patients with carcinoma of the prostate. Br J Urol 1992; 69: 277-281.




  • Wolff JM, Bares R, Jung PK, Buell U, Jakes G. Prostatic specific antigen as a marker of bone metastasis in patients with prostate cancer. Urol Int 1996; 56: 169-173.*




  • Huncharek M, Muscat J,. Serum prostate-specific antigen as a predictor of radiographic staging studies in newly diagnosed prostate cancer. Cancer Invest 1995; 13(1): 31-5*

9.6 Terapia
Terapia chirurgica


  • Aus G, Abbou CC, Pacik D, Schmid HP, van Poppel H, Wolff JM, Zattoni F, Pagano F., and the Working Group on Oncological Urology: EAU Guidelines on Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol, 40: 2-4, 2001.*




  • Lu-Yao GL, Yao SL: Population-based study of long term survival in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Lancet 1997;349(9056): 906-910.*




  • Lowe BA, Listrom MB. Incidental carcinoma of the prostate: an analysis of the predictors of progression. J Urol, 140: 1340-1344, 1988.*




  • Epstein JI, Walsh PC, Brendler CB. Radical prostatectomy for impalpable prostate cancer: the Johns Hopkins experience with tumors found on transurethral resection (stages T1a and T1b) and on needle biopsy (stage T1c). J Urol, 152: 1721-1729, 1994.




  • Sakr WA, Haas GP, Cassin BF, Pontes JE, Crissman JD. The frequency of carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the prostate in young male patients. J Urol, 150: 379-385, 1993.*




  • Bostwick DG, Neumann R, Qian J, Cheng L. Reversibility of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: implications for chemoprevention. Eur Urol, 35: 492-495, 1999.




  • Graverson PH, Nielsson KT, Gasser TC, Corle DK, Madsen PO. Radical prostatectomy versus expectant primary treatment in stages I and II prostatic cancer. A 15 years follow-up. Urology 1990; 36: 493-498.*




  • Epstein JI, Steinberg GD. The significance of low grade prostate cancer on needle biopsy. A radical prostatectomy study of tumor grade, volume, and stage of the biopsied and multifocal tumor. Cancer, 66: 1927-1932, 1990.*




  • Gibbsson RP. Total prostatectomy for clinically localized prostatic cancer: long-term surgical results and current morbidity. NCI monogr 1988; 7: 123-126.




  • Lerner SE, Blute ML, Zincke H. Extended experience with radical prostatectomy for clinical stage T3 prostate cancer: outcome and contemporary morbidity. J Urol, 154: 1447-1452, 1995.*




  • Van Poppel H, Goethuys H, Callewaert P, Vanuytsel L, Van de Voorde WM, Baert L. Radical prostatectomy can provide a cure for well-selected clinical stage T3 prostate cancer. Eur Urol, 38: 372-379, 2000.*




  • Standford JL, Feng Z, Hamilton AS, et al: Urinary and sexual function after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer: the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. JAMA 2000; 283(3): 354-60.*




  • Catalona WJ, Basler JW: Return of erections and urinary continence following nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy. J Urol 1993; 150(3): 905-907.*




  • Barry MJ, Albertsen PC, Bagshaw MA et al: Outcomes for men with clinically nonmetastatic prostate carcinoma managed with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or expectant management: a retrospective analysis. Cancer 2001;91(12): 2302-2314.*


Terapia radiante


  • Asbell SO, Mertz KL, Shin KH et al: Impact of surgical staging in evaluating the radiotherapeutic outcome in RTOG # 77-06, a phase III study for T1bN0M0 (A2) and T2N0M0 (B) prostate carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40(4): 69-82, 1998




  • Zelefsky M, d’ Amico A: External Beam Radiotherapy for Locally, Advanced and Recurrent Prostate Cancer, Course 402, 44th Annual Meeting ASTRO, 2002*




  • Hanks GE, Hanlon AL, Pinover WH et al: Survival advantage for prostate cancer patients treated with high dose three-dimensional radiotherapy . Cancer JSCI AM 1999;5:152-158.*




  • Pollack A: Prostate cancer radiation dose response: results of the M.D.Anderson phase III randomised trial.Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 53(5):1097-1105,2002.*




  • Blasko JG, GrimmPD,Sylvester JE et al: The role of external beam radiotherapy With I-125, Pd-103 brachytherapy for prostate carcinoma. Radiother Oncol. 2000;57:273-8*




  • Ragde H, Blasko JC, Grimm PD et al: Interstizial iodine-125 radiation without adjuvant therapy in the treatment of clinically localized prostate carcinoma. Cancer 80(3):442-53,1997.




  • WallnerK, Roy J, Harrison L: Tumor control and morbidity following transperineal Iodine 125 implantation for stage T1/T2 prostatic carcinoma.J Clin Oncol 14(2): 449-53,1996.*




  • Valicenti RK, Ismail MT,Petersen RO et al: Durable efficacy of Early Postoperative Radiation Therapy for p T3N0 Prostate Cancer: the importance of Radiation dose. Urology 52: 1034-1040,1998.*




  • Hamilton AS, Stanford JL, Gilliland FD et al: Health outcomes after external-beam radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: results from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study. J Clin Oncol 19(9): 2517-26,2001*




  • Zelefsky MJ, Fuks Z, Hunt M et al: High- dose intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer: early toxicity and biochemical outcome in 772 patients. Int J Radiat oncol Biol Phys 53(5): 1111-6,200.*




  • Zelefsky MJ, Fuks Z, HuntM et al. The impact of dose escalation on local control and disease-free survival in 1100 patients with localized prostate cancer treated by three- dimensional conformal radiation therapy. J Urol 196(3):876-81,2001.*




  • Robinson RG: Strontium-89- precursor targeted therapy for pain relief of blastic metastatic disease. Cancer 72 (11 suppl): 3433-5,1993




  • Porter AT, McEwan AJ, Powe Je et al: Results of randomised phase III Trial to evaluate the efficacy of Strontium-89 adjuvant to local field external beam irradiation in the management of endocrine resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Phys 25 (5): 805-13,199.*




  • Roach M 3rd, DeSilvio M, Lawton C et al: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9413. Phase III trial comparing whole-pelvic versus prostate-only radiotherapy and neoadjuvant versus adjuvant combined androgen suppression: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9413. J Clin Oncol,2003 May 15;21(10):1904-11.*


Terapia delle recidive


  • Ray GR, Bagshaw MA, Freiha F. External beam irradiation salvage for residual or recurrent local tumor following radical prostatectomy. J Urol 132(5): 926-930. 1984.*




  • Lange PH, Reddy PK, Medini E, et al. Radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy. NCI Monogr (7): 141-149, 1988.*




  • Carter G.E, Lieskovsky G, Skinner DG, et al. Results of local and/or systemic adjuvant therapy in the management of pathological stage C or D1 prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy. J Urol 142 (5): 1266-1270,1989.




  • Freeman JA, Lieskovsky G, Cook DW, et al. Radical retropubic prostatectomy and postoperative adjuvant radiation for pathological stage C prostate cancer from 1976 to 1989: intermediate findings. J Urol 149 (5): 1029-1034,1993.




  • Schellhammer PF, Kuban DA, el-Mahdi AM. Treatment of clinical local failure after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. J Urol 150 (6): 1851-5,1993.*




  • Matthew S, Katz S, Zelefsky MJ, Leibel SA. Predictors of biochemical outcome with salvage conformal radiotherapy after radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 2003; 21: 483-489.*

  • Partin AW, Pearson JD, Landis PK, Walsh PC. Evalutation of serum prostate-specific antigen velocity after radical prostatectomy to distinguish local recurrance from distant metastasis. Urology 1994; 43:649-59.


Terapia ormonale


  • Huggins G, Hodges CV: Studies on prostate cancer I. The effects of castration, of estrogen and of androgen injection on serum acid phosphatase in metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer Res. 1: 293-97, 1941.




  • Patterson SG, Balducci L, Pow-Sang JM: Controversies surrounding androgen deprivation for prostate cancer. Cancer Control 9: 315-25, 2002.*




  • Byar DP: The Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group’s studies of cancer of the prostate. Cancer 32: 1126-30, 1973.




  • Parmar H, Edwards L Phillips RH et al: Orchiectomy versus long-acting D-Trp-6-LHRH in advanced prostatic cancer. Br J Urol. 59: 248-54, 1987.




  • Waymont B, Lynch TH, Dunn JA et al: Phase III randomised study of Zoladex versus stilboestrol in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Br J Urol 69: 614-20, 1992.




  • The Leuprolide Study Group: Leuprolide versus diethylstilbestrol for metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J. Med. 311: 1281-6, 1984.




  • Peeling WB: Phase III studies to compare Goserelin (Zoladex) with orchiectomy and with diethylstilbestrol in treatment of prostatic carcinoma. Urology 33: 45-52, 1989.




  • Vogelzang NJ, Chodak GW, Soloway MS et al: Goserelin versus orchiectomy in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.: final results of a randomized trial. Urology 46: 220-6, 1995.




  • Kaisary AV, Tyrrell CJ, Peeling WB et al: Comparison of LHRH analogue (Zoladex) with orchiectomy in patients with metastatic prostatic carcinoma. Br J Urol. 67: 502-8, 1991.




  • McLeod D, Zinner N, Tomera K et al: A phase III, multicenter, open-label, randomized study of Abarelix versus leuprolide acetate in men with prostate cancer. Urology 58: 756-61, 2001.*




  • Trachtenberg J, Gittleman M, Steidle C et al: A phase III, multicenter, open-label, randomized study of Abarelix versus leuprolide plus daily antiandrogen in men with prostate cancer. J Urol. 167: 1670-4, 2002.*




  • Seidenfeld J, Samson DJ, Hasselblad V et al: Single-therapy androgen suppression in men with advanced prostate cancer: a sistematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 132: 566-77, 2000.




  • Moinpour CM, Savage MG, Troxel A et al: Quality of life in advanced prostate cancer: results of a randomized therapeutic trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 90: 1537-44, 1998.




  • Bubley GJ: Is the flare phenomenon clinically significant? Urology 58: 5-9, 2001.




  • Labrie F, Dupont A, Belanger A et al: Flutamide eliminates the risk of disease flare in prostatic cancer patients treated with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist. J Urol. 138: 804-6, 1987.




  • Tyrrell CJ, Kaisary AV, Iversen P et al: A randomized comparison of Casodex (bicalutamide) 150 mg monotherapy versus castration in the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 33: 447-56, 1998.*




  • Iversen P, Tyrrell CJ, Kaisary AV et al: Casodex (bicalutamide) 150 mg monotherapy compared with castration in patients with previously untreated non metastatic prostate cancer: results from two multicenter randomized trials at a median follow-up of 4 years. Urology 51: 389-96, 1998.*




  • Iversen P, Tyrrell CJ, Kaisary AV et al: Bicalutamide monotherapy compared with castration in patients with non metastatic locally advanced prostate cancer: 6.3 years of follow-up. J Urol. 164: 1579-82, 2000.*




  • Boccardo F, Rubagotti A, Barichello M et al: Bicalutamide monotherapy versus flutamide plus goserelin in prostate cancer patients: results of an Italian Prostate Cancer Project study. J Clin Oncol. 17: 2027-38, 1999.




  • Boccardo F, Barichello M Battaglia M et al: Bicalutamide monotherapy versus flutamide plus goserelin in prostate cancer: updated results of a multicentric trial. Eur. Urol. 42: 481-90, 2000.




  • Crawford ED, Eisenberger MA, McLeod DG et al: A controlled trial with leuprolide with and without flutamide in prostatic carcinoma. N Engl J. Med 321: 419-24,1989.




  • Denis LJ, Cameiro de Moura JL, Bono A et al: Goserelin acetate and flutamide versus bilateral orchiectomy: a phase III EORTC trial. EORTC GU Group and EORTC Data Center. Urology 42: 119-30,1993




  • Janknegt RA; Abbou CC, Bartoletti R et al: orchiectomy and nilutamide or placebo as treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer in a multinational, double-blind randomized trial. J. Urol 149: 77-83, 1993.




  • Eisenberger MA, Blumenstein BA, Crawford ED et al: Bilateral orchiectomy with or without flutamide for metastatic prostate cancer. N. Engl. J. Med 339: 1036-42, 1998.




  • Tyrrell CJ, Altwein JE, Klippel F et al: Multicenter randomized trial comparing Zoladex with Zoladex plus flutamide in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer: survival update. Cancer 72: 3878-9;1993.




  • Boccardo F, Pace M, Rubagotti A, et al. Goserelin acetate with or without flutamide in the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer 29: 1088-1093, 1993.




  • Prostate Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group: Maximum androgen blockade in advanced prostate cancer: an overview of the randomized trials: The Lancet 355: 1491-98, 2000.




  • Byar DP, Corle DK: Hormone therapy for prostate cancer: results of the Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group studies. NCI Monogr.:165-70, 1998.




  • The Medical Research Council Prostate Cancer Working Party Investigators Group: Immediate versus deferred treatment for advanced prostatic cancer: initial results of the MRC trial. Br J Urol 79: 235-46, 1997.*




  • Bolla M, Gonzalez D, Warde P et al: Improved survival in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and goserelin. N Engl J. Med. 337: 295-300, 1977.




  • Pilepich MV, Caplan R, Byhardt RW et al: Phase III trial of androgen suppression using goserelin in unfavorable-prognosis carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy: report of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 85-31. J Clin Oncol. 15: 1013-21,1997.




  • Granfors T, Modig H, Damber JE et al: Combined orchiectomy and external radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for non metastatic prostate cancer with or without pelvic lymph node involvement: a prospective randomized study. J Urol 159: 2030-34,1998.




  • Messing EM, Manola J, Sarosdy M et al: Immediate hormonal therapy compared with observation after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in men with node-positive prostate cancer. N Engl: J. Med 341: 1781-88, 1999.




  • See WA, Wirth MP, McLeod DG et al: Bicalutamide as immediate therapy either alone or as adjuvant to standard care of patients with localized or locally advanced prostate cancer: first analysis of the Early Prostate Cancer Program. J Urol 168: 429-35, 2002.




  • Van Poppel H: Neoadjuvant hormone therapy and radical prostatectomy: the Jury is still out. Eur Urol 39: 10-4, 2001.




  • Sandford NL, Searle JW; Kerr JF: Successive waves of apoptosis in the rat prostate after repeated withdrawal of testosterone stimulation. Pathology 16: 406-10, 1984*


Terapia della malattia ormonorefrattaria


  • De Mulder PHM, Schalken JA, Sternberg CN. Treatment options in hormone resistant prostate cancer. Ann Oncol 13 (Suppl 4): 95-102, 2002.




  • Gilligan T, Kantoff P. Chemotherapy for prostate cancer. Urology 60 (Suppl 3A): 94-100, 2002.




  • Beer T, Raghavan D. Chemotherapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer: beauty is in the eye of the beholder. Prostate 2000;45:184-93.

  • Bubley GJ, Carducci M, Dahut W et al. Eligibility and response guidelines for phase II clinical trials in androgen-independent prostate cancer: recommendations from the prostate-specific antigen working group. J Clin Oncol 17: 3461-3467, 1999.




  • Smaletz O, Scher HI, Small EI et al. Nomogram for overall survival of patients with progressive metastatic prostate cancer after castration. J Clin Oncol 20: 3972-3982; 2002.




  • Halabi S, Small EJ, Kantoff PW et al. Prognostic model for predicting survival in men with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 21: 1232-1237, 2003.




  • Sabbatini P, Larson S, Kremer AB, et al. The prognostic significance of extent of disease in bone in patients with androgen independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 17: 948-957; 1999.




  • Small E, Vogelzang N. Second-line hormonal therapy for advanced prostate cancer: a shifting paradigm. J Clin Oncol 1997;15: 382-388.*




  • Small EJ, Carrol PPR. Prostate specific antigen decline after Casodex withdrawal: evidence for an antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome. Urology 1994; 86: 926-933.*




  • Scher HI, Kell WK. Flutamide withdrawal syndrome: its impact on clinical trials in hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1993; 11: 1566-1572.




  • Tannock IF, Osaba D, Stockler MR, et al. Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisone alone for symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer: a Canadian randomised trial with palliative end points. J Clin Oncol 14:1756-1764, 1996.




  • Kantoff PW, Conaway M, Winer E, et al. Hydrocortisone (HC) with or without mitoxantrone (M) in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC): preliminary results from a prospective randomised Cancer Leukemia Group B study comparing chemotherapy to best supportive care. J Clin Oncol 15:25, 1996 (suppl).




  • Siu LL, Moore MJ. Is there a role for chemotherapy in hormone-refractory prostate cancer? Anvances in Oncology 12: 22-29, 1996.

  • Boccardo F, Granetto C. Chemotherapy in advanced stage prostate cancer: an overview. FORUM Trends in Experimental and Clinical Medicine, 6.2 (Suppl. 2): 42-45, 1996.

  • Berry WR, Laszlo J, Cox E, et al. Prognostic factors in metastatic and hormonally unresponsive carcinoma of the prostate. Cancer 44: 763-775, 1979.

  • Yagoda A. Cytotoxic agents in prostate cancer: an enigma. Sem Urol 4: 311-321, 1983

  • De Wys WD, Bauer M, Colsky J, et al. Comparative trial of adriamycin and 5-fluorouracil in advanced prostatic cancer - progress report. Cancer Treat Rep 61: 325-328, 1977.

  • Canobbio L, Guarneri D, Miglietta L, et al. Carboplatin in advanced hormone refractory prostatic cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 15: 2094-2096, 1993.

  • Kramer SA, Tatum AC, Walker A, et al. Histologic grading as predictor of response to chemotherapy in patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Urology 18: 377-379, 1981.

  • Yagoda A, Watson RC, Natale RB, et al: A critical analysis of response criteria in patients with prostatic cancer treated with cis-diammine-dichloride platinum. Cancer 44: 1553-1562, 1979.

  • Slack NH, Mittelman A, Brady MF: The importance of stable category for chemotherapy treated patients with advanced and relapsing prostate cancer. Cancer 46: 2393-2402, 1980.

  • Fossa SD, Aaronson NK, Newling D, et al: Quality of life and treatment of hormone resistant metastatic prostate cancer. Eur J Cancer 26: 1133-1136, 1990.*

  • da Silva FC, Reis E, Costa T, et al: Quality of life in patients with prostatic cancer. Cancer 71: 1138-1142, 1993.*

  • Kelly WK, Scher HI, Mazumdar M, et al: Prostate-specific antigen as a measure of disease outcome in metastatic hormone-refractory prostatic cancer. J Clin Oncol 11: 607-615, 1993.

  • Smith DC, Pienta KJ: The use of prostate specific antigen as surrogate endpoint in the treatment of patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer. Urol Clin North Am 24, 1997.

  • Miglietta L, Canobbio L, Boccardo F: Assessment of response to carboplatin in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a critical analysis of drug activity. Anticancer Res 15: 2825-2828, 1995.*

  • Tannock IF: Is there evidence that chemotherapy is of benefit to patients with carcinoma of the prostate? J Clin Oncol 3: 1013-1021, 1985

  • Ferrari P, Castagnetti G: Combination treatment in M1 prostate cancer. Cancer 72 (Suppl): 3880-3885, 1993.

  • Rübben H, Dijkman G, Ferrari P, et al: Treatment of hormone resistant disease. In: Proceedings of First International Consultation on Prostate Cancer, Monaco, June 20-22, 1996, G Murphy, K Griffiths, L Denis et al (Eds), pp 325-342, 1997




  • Osborne KC, Blumenstein B, Crawford D, et al: Combined vs sequential chemoendocrine therapy in advanced prostate cancer: final results of a randomized Southwest Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol 8: 1675-1682, 1990

  • Amato RJ, Logothetis CJ, Dexeus FM, et al: Preliminary results of a phase II trial of estramustine and vinblastine for patients with progressive hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 32: 86, 1991

  • Hudes GR, Greenberg R, Krigel RL, et al: Phase II study of estramustine and vinblastine, two microtubules inhibitors, in hormone refarctory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 10: 1754-1761, 1992

  • Pienta KJ, Redmon B, Hussain M, et al: Phase II evaluation of oral estramustine in hormone refractory adenocarcinoma of the prostate. J Clin Oncol 12: 2005-2012, 1994

  • Boccardo F, Decensi A, Guarneri D et al. Estramustine phosphate (estracyt) following androgens in men with refractory stage D2 prostate cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1988;22:172-4.*

  • Manni A, Bartholomew M, Caplan R et al. Androgen priming and chemotherapy in advanced prostate cancer: evaluation of determinants of clinical outcome. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1456-66.*

  • Taylor CD, Elson P, Trump DL. Importance of continued testicular suppression in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1993;11:2167-72.

  • Linja MJ, Savinainen KJ, Saramaki OR et al. Amplification and overexpression of androgen receptor gene in hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cancer Res 2001;61:3550-5.*

  • Gregory CW, Johnson RT, Jr., Mohler JL et al. Androgen receptor stabilization in recurrent prostate cancer is associated with hypersensitivity to low androgen. Cancer Res 2001;61:2892-8.*

  • Hussain M, Wolf M, Marshall E et al. Effects of continued androgen-deprivation therapy and other prognostic factors on response and survival in phase II chemotherapy trials for hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group report. J Clin Oncol 1994;12:1868-75.*

  • Petrylak DP, Scher HI, Li Z et al. Prognostic factors for survival of patients with bidimensionally measurable metastatic hormone-refractory prostatic cancer treated with single-agent chemotherapy. Cancer 1992;70:2870-8.

  • Decensi AU, Guarneri D, Marroni P et al. Evidence for testicular impairment after long-term treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist in elderly men. J Urol 1989;142:1235-8.

  • DiPaola RS, Chenven ES, Shih WJ et al. Mitoxantrone in patients with prostate specific antigen progression after local therapy for prostate carcinoma. Cancer 2001;92:2065-71.



  • Sabbatini P, Larson S, Kremer AB, et al. The prognostic significance of extent of disease in bone in patients with androgen independent prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 17: 948-957; 1999.




  • Berruti A, Dogliotti L, Bitossi R et al. Incidence of skeletal complications in patients with bone metastatic prostate cancer and hormone refractory disease: predictive role of bone resorption and formation markers evaluated at baseline. J Urol 164: 1248-1253, 2000.




  • Oefelein MG, Ricchiuti WS, Conrad W, et al. Skeletal fractures negatively correlate with overall survival in men with prostate cancer. J Urol 168: 1005-1007, 2002.




  • Berruti A, Dogliotti L, Tucci M, et al. Metabolic bone disease induced by prostate cancer. Rationale for the use of bisphosphonates. J Urol 166: 2023-2031, 2001.*




  • Saad F, Gleason DM, Murray R et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 94: 1458-1468; 2002.*




  • Saad F. Treatment of bone complications in advanced prostate cancer: rationale for the bisphosphonate use and results of a phase III trial with zoledronic acid. Semin Oncol 29 (6 Suppl 21): 19-27, 2002.

9.8 Follow-up

  • Fossa S.D., Aass N., Opjordsmoen S. Assessment of quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. Semin. Oncol. 1994;21: 657-661.*

  • Boccardo E., Calais Da Silva F., Selvaggi E.P., Debruyne F.M.J. Il ruolo del follow-up nella qualità della vita del paziente con carcinoma prostatico avanzato.

  • Kupelian P, Katcher J, Levin H, Zippe C, Klein E. Correlation of clinical and pathologic factors with rising prostate-specific antigen profiles after radical prostatectomy alone for clinical localized prostate cancer. Urology 1996; 48: 249-260.

  • Hancock SL, Cox RS, Bagshaw MA. Prostate specific antigen after radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a revaluation of long-term biochemical control and the kinetics of recurrence in patients treated at Standford Unversity. J Urol 1995; 154:1412-17.

  • Kaplan ID, Cox RS, Bagshaw MA. Prostate specific antigen after external beam radiotherapy for prostatic cancer: follow-up. J Urol 1993; 149:519-22.

  • Frazier HA, Robertson JE, Humphrey PA, Paulson DF. Is prostate specific antigen of clinical importance in evaluating outcome after radical prostatectomy?. J Urol 1993; 149: 516-18.

  • Trapasso JG, deKernion JB, Smith RB, Dorey F. The incidence and significance of detectable levels of serum prostate specific antigen after radical prostatectomy, J Urol 1994; 152: 1821-25.

  • Lee WR, Hanlon AL, Hanks GE. Prostate-specific antigen nadir following external beam radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate cancer: the relation between nadir level and disease free survival. J Urol 1996; 156: 450-53.

  • Petros JA, Andriole GL. Serum PSA after antiandrogen therapy. Urol Clin North AM 1993; 20: 749-56.

  • Arai Y, Yoshiki T, Yoshida O. Prognostic significance of prostate specific antigen in endocrine treatment for prostatic cancer. J Urol 1990; 144: 1415-18.

  • Miller PD, Eardley I, Kirby RS. Prostate specific antigen and bone scan correlation in the staging and monitoring of patients with prostatic cancer. J Urol 1991: 145: 907-20.*

  • Sissons GR, Clements MA, Peeling WB, Penney MD. Can serum prostate- specific antigen replace bone scintigraphy in the follow-up of metatsatic prostatic cancer? Br J Radiol 1992; 65:861-64.

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Carcinoma della prostata
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