Look like” “She’s tall and slim.” Why did you behave like



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What’s XXX like?”

He’s very kind and patient.”

He’s very big and muscular.”

What does XXX look like

She’s tall and slim.”

Why did you behave like that?

What’s the weather like?
Likecomparison
Your house is like our house / ours. (is similar to ours.) || My bed is so hard it's like sleeping on the ground.

I've never met anybody like him. || I'm speaking to you like a sister. || He cried like a child. ||

He works like a slave.
Likepreposizione (+ nome / pronome)
He's a good pianist, like his father. (preposizione)

Like = such as  'for example':

I enjoy films like / such as thrillers.

I dislike sports such as / like skiing.

I want to do something such as / like working in a library.

As function


As a chef
, I have to cook one hundred meals a day. || I used the tin as a cup to drink out of. || I'm speaking to you as a sister. || As a child he collected stamps. ||

It's like living in a palace, living in your house. (It's not a palace.)



As a palace, Windsor is very impressive. (It is a palace.)
AS IF / AS THOUGHHe spoke as if he were sure of that.
Asprepositional phrases:

At my school, as at most schools, pupils were expected to respect their teachers.

In 1998, as in 1997, unemployment grew.
Asfollows some verbs:
ACCEPT CLASS ▮ DESCRIBE RECOGNIZE REFER REGARD REPRESENT USE

He is known as a generous person.

I don't regard learning a language as optional.

They accepted his version of the story as the only possible explanation.


As  + subject and verb (congiunzione)
She cut up the vegetables as I had taught her. (In the way I had taught her.) [LIKE si può trovare in AE / lingua informale)

He's a good pianist, as his father was (congiunzione)
Expressions:

as you know / as agreed / as you suggested / as usual / as a matter of fact / as long as / as soon as / as well / as well as

ALTHOUGH: (sebbene) COSTRUZIONE: SOGGETTO + VERBO

= in spite of the fact (that) / despite the fact (that)


I didn't get the job although I had all the necessary qualifications
although = though (informal)

spoken English: also used at the end of a sentence: I liked the sweater. I didn’t buy it, though.
even though: stronger / more emphatic than although

Even though I hate X, I’ll try to be nice to him/her.



IN SPITE OF : malgrado


DESPITE : malgrado / nonostante / a dispetto di + noun / -ing form
I felt perfectly calm in spite of the danger.

I carried on working in spite of being tired.

I’m no better in spite of the pills.

I’m no better despite the pills.

I’m no better in spite of taking the pills.

I’m no better, although

in spite of the fact (that) I’ve taken the pills

despite the fact (that)

/ AN


  1. uniform / university …: suono semiconsonantico: A

  2. hour / honest / honour / heir: h muta: AN [An heir honours an honest man’s memory every hour]; we can use an before an h- word that begins with an unstressed syllable. Thus, we might say an historical moment, but we would say a history book. Many writers would call that an affectation and prefer that we say a historical, but apparently, this choice is a matter of personal taste.

  3. AN FBI member / A UFO / Whether we say an URL or a URL depends on whether we pronounce it as "earl" or as "u*r*l."

  4. Sostantivo singolare numerabile non determinato / riferimento generico / nelle definizioni quando si considera un esemplare singolo: An alligator is a large animal similar to a crocodile / There’s a student down there / Give me a pen / I can drive a car / I’ve got a computer (a driving-licence / a passaport…) / He never wears a watch (a tie / a hat / a scarf…) / I found a book on my desk

  5. certe espressioni numeriche: a hundred / a thousand students / times (cento / mille studenti / volte)

  6. a few = some (con nomi contabili) / a little = some (con nomi non contabili) : a few pens / a little bread

  7. indicare costi / misure / frequenze: Sixty miles an hour / One at a time, please / It’s 70p a pound / my scooter does sixty miles an hour / I come here twice a day / week / year

  8. A Mr Smith (a man called Smith) -cfr- Is he the Mr Smith you told me about?

  9. nomi indicanti professione / religione / fede politica: She is a painter / He’s a Catholic / XXX’s a Comunist

  10. davanti a parti del corpo singole in descrizioni (spesso in presenza del verbo have): Andrea has grown a beard / XXX’s got an oval face / Pinocchio was a puppet with a long nose / My dog has a very long tail… (cfr She’s got blue eyes: parti del corpo plurali in descrizioni)

Questo vale anche per descrizioni dell’abbigliamento: He had a torn jacket / His jacket was torn (NON He had the torn jacket)

10. dopo as quando significa "come / in qualità di": My sister works as a nurse.

11. Dopo without davanti a un nome numerabile singolare: They won’t let you through without a passport / Don’t go out without an umbrella / They bought a house without a garage (cfr without delay – without (a) doubt)

12. con certe malattie: cold / cough / temperature / headache (MA Ø article con earache / backache; A toothache / A stomachache (AM) / sore throat: I’ve got a cold / a cough…

13. what a / such a + (aggettivo) + nome singolare: meraviglia / sorpresa: What an excellent student! / XXX’s such a pretty girl! What a pity she’s not so intelligent. / What a beautiful day! [What / Such + (aggettivo) + nome plurale / non contabile: What nice students you are! / I’ve never met such nice students! / What disgusting food! / I’ve never tasted such disgusting food! / What great fun! / It was such fun!]

14. half a: It takes me half an hour to walk to school.



15. Espressioni: # to be in a hurry # in a good / bad mood (di cattivo / buon umore) # of a bad / good temper (di indole cattiva / buona) # to be at a loss (essere imbarazzato, non sapere che fare) # to take a seat (accomodarsi / prender posto) # to smoke a pipe # to make a career # in a loud voice # in a short time # many a woman / man…# in a short / little / long while # as a rule # to have a flair (for) (avere predisposizione per…) # to have an appetite # to have a word (with) # to have a grudge (against) (provare risentimento) # to have a bath / a shower # to go to a restaurant # When I was a child… # Are you an only child? # I work in a bank / a factory… # I'll do it in half an hour # It was quite a good dinner # This is rather a good idea


  1. con nomi numerabili / non numerabili - riferimento determinato (in modo esplicito o implicito) dal contesto: This is the book you lent me. / That’s the student who got the highest score at the school-leaving examination / Where’s the newspaper? (quello che stavi leggendo / che avevi in mano / che ho comprato stamattina / quello di cui mi hai parlato / l’unico che c’è) / The water is in the fridge (quella che ho comprato stamattina / quella che è rimasta…) / Can I use the phone, please? (l'unico che c'è) / I must go to the bank (la mia banca di fiducia) / You look ill: you ought to go and see the doctor (il tuo medico curante) / in the bedroom (kitchen – garden – corridor - lift…) (riferendosi alla propria casa o a una casa determinata) / at the cinema (station) / in the (town) centre / on the underground (cfr I usually go to work by underground) / in the supermarket / XXX is at the library / the office / the swimming pool / the theatre / the disco… (quello/a della mia o di quella determinata città)

  2. con sostantivo numerabile al singolare: riferimento generico: 1 membro di una categoria rappresenta tutta la categoria: The horse is a domestic animal

  3. davanti a un aggettivo indica l’intera categoria descritta dall’aggettivo: the rich / the poor…(+ verbo al plurale)

  4. con strumenti musicali / balli: I play the piano. / Can you dance the tango?

  5. davanti a numeri ordinali: XXX’s always the first

  6. nelle date con numerali: 15 April (the fifteenth of April)…

  7. nei superlativi relativi: XXX is the tallest boy in our class

  8. proprio perché unici diciamo: the world / the sun / the moon / the sky: There are black clouds in the sky. Earth si usa senza articolo quando ci si riferisce al pianeta come parte dell’universo (The space shuttle Atlantis returned safely to earth today.); quando invece ci riferiamo al posto in cui viviamo si usa l’articolo (The Earth takes approximately 365¼ days to go round the Sun.) MA What on earth is that terrible noise? – This is the coldiest place on Earth.]

  1. nomi di nazioni / nomi geografici che contengono nome contabile: the Soviet Union the United Kingdom - the German Democratic Republic - the Netherlands (verbo SINGOLARE) - the Unites States of America (verbo SINGOLARE) - the Suez Canal – the English Channel - the Indian Ocean - The British Isles - The Sahara (Desert) - the Rocky Mountains - The Midlands

  2. gruppi di montagne / gruppi di isole / mari / fiumi / se sono plurali:– the Azores – the Alps - the Mediterranean (Sea) – the (River) Thames

  3. punti cardinali: Naples is in the South of Italy - The North Pole [MA North America / Birds usually migrate from north to south. / Anita drove north up Pacific Highway. / That's a little village a few miles north of Portsmouth / the Far West / The Middle East (nomi che terminano con un punto cardinale)]

  4. usato con nomi che contengono OF: the Isle of Wight - the Cape of Good Hope - the Gulf of Mexico

  5. altri nomi geografici: the Middle East – the Vatican - the Arctic - the Antarctic - the Tyrol - the Lebanon - the Crimea

  6. The mountains / the seaside / the sea / the country: We’re going to the mountains tomorrow - I love the sea (cfr I spent many years at sea. / go to sea / by sea → quando si intende "essere in mare aperto" / "andare in viaggio per mare") [N.B.: I spent the summer at the seaside (sea) BUT I spent the summer in the mountains / in the country ]

  1. In genere quando il sostantivo è seguito da un complemento di specificazione [OF]: the history of America [ma American history] - the art of the Middle Ages [ma medieval art / art in the Middle Ages] - the music of the 18th century [ma 18th century music / music in the 18th century]

  2. nomi di alberghi / ristoranti (ma non con nomi personali nella forma possessiva) / teatri / cinema / musei / navi - treni- aerei speciali / quotidiani (ma non pubblicazioni periodiche) the Sheraton Hotel - the Stella Polare [ma We went to Alice's ( restaurant) last night] – the Globe - the Odeon - the British Museum - the Titanic – The Orient Express – The Times

  3. davanti a nomi che indicano un'istituzione: the police / the Church / the law

  4. davanti a cognomi al plurale: The Bensons

  5. davanti a sostantivi di nazionalità se si intende il popolo come una nazione, un'unità: The Swiss remained neutral during the Second World War [per parlare delle caratteristiche generali dipende se ci si riferisce al popolo o agli individui in generale: (The) Italians love talking about politics.]

  6. davanti a nomi che indicano una carica [NON seguiti da nome proprio]: The Queen - The Prime Minister

  7. nei titoli di libri / films etc.: The Elephant and the Mouse

  8. nelle abbreviazioni quando sono lette lettera per lettera: the B.B.C. – the U.N. [vedi 25 / 29]

  9. esempi particolari di nomi non contabili: “Try a glass of this French wine and a glass of this Italian wine, and then tell me which you prefer.” “The Italian wine, definitely.” / This snow is just the snow for skiing.


ARTICLE


  1. con sostantivi non numerabili non determinati: Meat is expensive / I like music but I don’t like the music he plays.

  2. con i colori: He likes ash-blonde girls with ice-blue eyes. / My favourite colour is red. [MA The sea was a deep midnight blue.]

  3. con sostantivi plurali per intendere l’intera categoria: I love flowers

  4. con la maggior parte delle nazioni: England / Italy / France …

  5. con last e next (scorso / venturo): He left last week and he’ll be back next month.

  6. to / in / at + posto che si riferisce all’attività / funzione associata al posto: go to / be at / in bed - churchhospitalprisonschoolcollegeuniversity - table [I'm tired. I'll go to bed (cfr Mummy is making the bed) - XXX goes to church on Sundays (cfr I visited the church to see Rembrandt's "Virgin Mary") - XXX broke her leg and was taken to hospital (cfr I went to see my friend at the hospital) - He was sent to prison for 5 years (cfr She went to the prison to visit him) - I'm a student. I go to school (cfr The bus stop is opposite the school) - After school I want to go to University (cfr The University of Bologna is one of the most ancient) - Dinner's ready. Let's sit at table (cgr The table in the sitting-room is broken)

  7. by + mezzo: come si viaggia: I go by bus – train – car … (on foot – on horseback) MA se si intende mezzo specifico (articolo / possessivo / dimostrativo) si usano le preposizioni in [CAR / TAXI / BOAT] / on [TRAIN / BIKE (bicycle) / PLANE / SHIP ETC.]: We came in a taxi – It’ll be quicker to go in my car (in the car) – I can't come on this bike

  8. nomi di singole montagne / isole / laghi: Mount Everest – Long Island – Lake Garda

  9. con i nomi astratti: happiness / evil / death…

  10. con i sostantivi Parliament / people / society / nature: The structure of society is deeply changed

  11. davanti al gerundio: Reading is more useful than watching TV

  12. sostantivi Heaven / Hell / space (spazio interplanetario cfr the universe): Would you like to travel into space?/ Lost in Space

  13. Man + woman usati per intendere il genere umano / genere maschile o femminile: Primitive man led a hard life MA In certain tribes the woman went out hunting and the man looked after the children perché qui si indica una particolare specie di uomo o donna o la popolazione maschile o femminile all’interno di una certa società

  14. Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms Dr / Uncle / Aunt / title + nome: Mr Smith – President Bush…

  15. Nome proprio + piazze / strade / stazioni / aeroporti / parchi / ponti / castelli / università / edifici pubblici: We flew to Fiumicino airport in Italy - Where's Victoria Station, please? I visited Edimburgh castle last summer. [MA usi THE se seguiti da OF: The Bank of England / The Houses of Parliament / The Tower of London]

  16. giorni – mesi – festività – anni: Monday is the most tiring day of the week – I was born in August 1981 [cfr in the year 2000 / in the 60s]

  17. nomi di lingue: Chinese is a difficult language

  18. nomi di materie scolastiche: I like history and geography

  19. nomi di pasti: Dinner will be served at seven (cfr The dinner they served was rather disappointing)

  20. davanti a nomi che indicano parti del corpo / abbigliamento / parentele / oggetti personali perché si usa l'aggettivo possessivo: Will you take your coat off? - My nose is red because I caught a cold

  21. percentuali: Only 3 % were in favour of the proposal.

  22. television quando si intendono programmi televisivi: I watch television (cfr listen to the radio)

  23. nomi dei propri familiari parlando con membri della stessa famiglia: What will Mother say? (lettera maiuscola)

  24. nomi di sport / giochi / squadre sportive: Cricket is very popular in England – They play bridge every evening – Liverpool are playing Chelsea next week. [MA THE Chicago Bulls are the best basketball team in the N.B.A.]

  25. davanti ai nomi di società / compagnie / ditte: I generally fly with British Airways / The market of breakfast cereals is dominated by Kellog's.

  26. nomi di malattie: She’s got measles – Influenza may be dangerous for old people [MA in linguaggio informale con alcune malattie infettive comuni THE è possibile: (the) flu / (the) measles / (the) mumps / (the) chickenpox]

  27. quando si vuole risparmiare spazio / tempo / denaro: titoli di giornali / telegrammi / cartelli o avvisi → Police question youth after British Museum explosion – REGRET MEETING CANCELLED - LETTER FOLLOWS – RING BELL AND WAIT

  28. nomi che terminano per Gate / Cross / Abbey : Charing Cross…

  29. abbreviazioni quando sono lette come parola unica: NATO / FIFA etc. [vedi 16 (THE) / 25]

  30. con un nome e un numero: Do exercise 3 on page 29.





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